The most important improvement you’ll notice is the sheer quality of sound you can get by upping your budget even slightly. Remember that the movement of the needle in the record’s groove picks up the audio signal from vinyl, so cutting out any unwanted additional movement - no matter how small – produces a cleaner and more faithful signal. That means not just isolating external movement but also vibration from the turntable's own motor.
High-end turntables use improved materials to enhance overall performance. The “platter” your record rests on is very important to avoid slipping or any vibration. The rigidity and weight of the tone-arm and cartridge are also very important. Even the bearings used around its axle can make a big difference in isolation from vibration and that translates directly into a big improvement in audio quality.
Moving up from the most basic models can also get you some extra, and useful, features. A particularly useful one is a built-in USB socket so you can record or 'rip' digital audio tracks from the vinyl source. This lets you have the best of both worlds: the beautiful sound of vinyl at home, but also the convenience of digital audio files to listen to on the move.
One of the more recent features to show up on turntables is Bluetooth for wireless streaming to Bluetooth speakers. While this might initially seem counter-intuitive to the analogue nature of vinyl, Bluetooth technology has come so far along that there is very little loss of quality, especially when you pair your premium turntable with a premium pair of wireless speakers, which are also quickly becoming readily available.